Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time. It has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles. The term originated in the 19th century, but folk music extends beyond that. Starting in the midth century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music. This process and period is called the second folk revival and reached a zenith in the s. This form of music is sometimes called contemporary folk music or folk revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. This type of folk music also includes fusion genres such as folk rock , folk metal , and others.
Creation and adaptation
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Folk music , type of traditional and generally rural music that originally was passed down through families and other small social groups. Typically, folk music, like folk literature , lives in oral tradition; it is learned through hearing rather than reading. It is functional in the sense that it is associated with other activities, and it is primarily rural in origin. The usefulness of the concept varies from culture to culture, but it is most convenient as a designation of a type of music of Europe and the Americas. The term folk music and its equivalents in other languages denote many different kinds of music; the meaning of the term varies according to the part of the world, social class , and period of history. In determining whether a song or piece of music is folk music, most performers, participants, and enthusiasts would probably agree on certain criteria derived from patterns of transmission, social function, origins, and performance. The central traditions of folk music are transmitted orally or aurally, that is, they are learned through hearing rather than the reading of words or music, ordinarily in informal, small social networks of relatives or friends rather than in institutions such as school or church. In the 20th century, transmission through recordings and mass media began to replace much of the face-to-face learning.
Where a folk song originated is rarely known to its community , and thus the anonymity of the creative process was once considered a major criterion of folk music identification. It has become clear, however, that folk songs and other pieces are the result of individual creation, either by villagers or by professional or church musicians whose work is somehow taken up in the folk culture. The repertory of a folk community probably always included songs of very diverse origins. The form of a folk song as heard at any one time, however, is likely to have been very much affected by the entire community because of its life in oral tradition. Once introduced, a song could be easily dropped from the repertory. More likely, however, as it was passed from parents to children and to friends and associates and coworkers, it would be changed. Numerous influences acted on a song, including creativity, forgetfulness, previously learned songs, and stylistic expectations.